In recent years, flooding has significantly increased in recurrence and seriousness because of urban development, rapid population expansion combined with outrageous climatic events causing increments in water run-off resulting in waterways blasting their banks.
The event of flooding has raised not just the issues of climatic change and environmental impacts, in addition, the more concrete problems of the effect on ecology, health hazard, Housing property development and cost, and the capacity of housing landowner to increase both funds and protection for their properties causing a fast expansion in the susceptibility of the community unmasked to dangerous flooding occasions everywhere around the world.
FLOOD EFFECTS ON CONVENTIONAL HOUSING
Floods can cause harm to houses and different structures. Flood stream and the water satiated around a house can apply horizontal forces sufficiently to harm or fall dividers. Houses with lighter structures can even be carried away in a flood when spilling water forces are tremendous. Water occupying the structure can elevate forces on the floor massive to harm the floor chunk. Inadequately planned establishments can undoubtedly be destroyed during floodings, such as unsatisfactory or inferior quality materials used in houses, such as unburnt mud blocks and ineffective stonework-crafts. These conditions oblige everybody to build up a flood-lenient way of life dependent on flood adaptation strategies at the property level. It is presently a dire need to oversee flood hazards by coordinating new ideas like urban resilience designs that have recently joined into city masterplans because resilient housings offer a way to make homes safe from natural dangers.
RESILIENT HOUSING: A SUSTAINABLE HOUSING APPROACH
Resilient housing is fundamental for pre-disaster panning in weak zones and considerably more significant when post-catastrophe reaction and migration are considered. Resilient housing is the methodology that endorses safe and eco-accommodating improvement to the residential network. Flood-resilient housing is planned and developed to diminish floodwater’s effect entering the structure to ensure no perpetual harm, basic uprightness of structure is kept up, and drying and cleaning are more comfortable.
Different attributes of resilient houses incorporate
- escape gateways,
- concrete structures,
- the capacity to ingest forces,
- fortified spaces that can secure residents regardless of whether different pieces of the house are pulverized or flooded,
- the application of water-safe materials in areas that are probably going to be hit by floods
- redundancy and modularity that permit the connection of various segments of the structure
- blunt structures promptly constructed locally by using local materials
- adaptability permits extension and adaptation when required.
ROLE OF GIS IN FLOOD RESILIENT HOUSING
A geographic information system (GIS) has a decisive role in the establishment of flood resilience. Innovating technology like Geographic Information System (GIS ) and Remote Sensing (RS) can fortify urban communities’ arranging capacities, improve the conveyance of analytic services, upgrade assets, and decrease maintenance and monitoring expenses. GIS-RS innovation fills in as establishing and administering dangers and chances and diminishing urban susceptibility.
HOW GIS HELPS IN RESILIENT FLOOD HOUSING?
GIS/RS empowers the spatial portrayal of a demographics of an area and the associations of inhabitants to the natural and built environment, business sources, and social and historical resources.
The data is put away in digitized design in databases as organized data layers in the GIS system. A perception application can transform these layers into maps essential to the client. For instance, territories subject to flooding can be envisioned along with water streams, populace, and business resources; weak populaces can be distinguished inside their areas’ threat potential. GIS can likewise be utilized to recognize where community sanctuaries would be generally helpful.
HOW CAN COMMUNITY HELP?
Substantial commitment and interest of the community individuals are expected to gather spatial data from the local locations with the help of devices; For example, QGIS programming, Java OpenStreetMap (JOSM), Field papers, Open Data Kit (ODK), and Open Map Kit (OMK) to make resilient housing. The gathered information incorporate locational information of the structures, flood-inclined zones, family unit sizes, seepage systems, and land uses.
Gathered geospatial information is transferred into the OpenStreetMap sites, and the public produces flood maps. Maps help the community become more decisive by causing inhabitants to see how floods sway their living climate, the most secure zones in the area, and the flood hazard territory.
EXAMPLES OF FLOOD RESILIENT HOUSING
Sacrificial floor house:
These houses have a base floor that can be utilized as a washing/damp space/washroom or potentially hold away things and vehicles, and for other different purposes. Things of significant worth can be moved to upper degrees of the house during a flood to guarantee their insurance. These houses are valuable in territories that experience low to medium flooding likelihood.
This alludes to raised houses or houses on braces, poles, or stands that keep them well over the ground. In hot territories, there can be a co-advantage of sufficient air ventilation. Any such house must withstand streak flooding and waterfront storm floods (where pertinent) ought to be planned by somebody with proper materials and qualities. There is a long history of brace houses worldwide, any place individuals have lived a couple with lakes, the ocean, or regular flooding. Environmental change effects may require changes to conventional plans’ qualities if storm flood or flooding occasions become more grounded or fiercer.
This house can glide on water and moves with the water levels. Most such houses are forever situated on the water, yet this needn’t be the situation. A house could be intended to become skimming should the need emerge, with some resourcefulness and groundbreaking. Floating houses require moderately still water conditions at this stage (for example, a lake, tidal pond, or trench) and can’t be set on a sea. Current models can be found in the Netherlands or zones, for example, marina lodging, as in Sausalito. This way to deal with waterside living as a flood-sealing arrangement is still genuinely much in the exploratory stage in many spots. Nonetheless, it is an answer that will, without a doubt, turn out to be more satisfactory in flood-inclined regions as expected.