The GIS data is produced, stored, and shared in various formats depending on the data type.

  • Shapefiles

Shapefiles are the most well-known GIS data format created by ESRI to store and share vector data. Even though shapefile seems singular, there are 3 file types associated with shapefile to represent it accurately.

  1. .SHP: The main component containing shape coordinates, displaying all the shapes.
  2. .SHX: The index file helps the GIS program to discover spatial features more rapidly inside the SHP record.
  3. .DBF: Contains all the attribute information of the features inside the above two file format extensions.
  • Comma Separated Value

As the name proposes, CSV records are a list of information points (values) isolated by commas.

As text documents, they effectively use the most straightforward file format, making them ideal for moving information between programs. Despite not being a mapping format, CSV is frequently used to make point layers in GIS.  For this to be fruitful, the CSV document must have both x and y coordinates columns.

  • File GeoDatabase

The file geodatabases permit clients to store all specifically related information in a single database. Every database can compose and store vector and raster documents, relationship classes, attribute-tables, and spatial information. There are two kinds of geodatabases: file-GDB and personal-MBD.

Geodatabases and Shapefiles can accomplish comparable objectives. Nonetheless, geodatabases offer significant benefits.

  1. Faster execution
  2. Topological association
  3. Raster capacity
  4. Data compression
  5. Up to 1TB record sizes

KML represents Keyhole Markup Language. As the default document design for Google Earth, it’s the most popular GIS record type outside of expert GIS circles. KMZ is the compacted version of KML, implying KML-Zipped. KML records contain both attribute and geometry data. They likewise contain a range of configuration options that enhance Google Earth as an application but limit KML documents’ utilization elsewhere.

This arrangement was initially evolved by Keyhole Inc, which was later purchased by Google.

  • GeoTIFF

TIFF is a raster picture file format most firmly identified with JPEG, PNG, and GIF document types.

Dissimilar to other raster document types, they don’t compress record size, and therefore they’re not ideal for use on sites.

They do offer the most adaptability as far as altering and adding labels and layers. GeoTIFFs are TIFF records that contain area metadata. The metadata goes about as directions on the best way to find the file on the map.

Upheld by most stages, GeoTIFF records are the business standard for satellite symbolism and differen GIS picture documents.

  • GeoJSON

GeoJSON is a vector document design that encodes geological information utilizing Javascript Object Notation (JSON). Contrasted with other online dialects, JSON is lightweight and genuinely direct. These records store coordinates as text; however, render in a visual configuration.

JSON documents, for the most part, contain two components:

  1. Name
  2. List of values


GIS information comes in numerous structures and from tremendous sources.

Fortunately, there is a considerable amount of open-source map information on the web. A couple of very much positioned Google searches can uncover plenty of significant resources. Numerous regions keep up information bases on their GIS information, most accessible for free download. Additionally, a few open-source information bases are an extraordinary beginning stage for individuals hoping to locate a particular information type. Some of the well-known GIS  open resources are

Offers a mix of vector and raster informational collections, a large portion accessible in three diverse size scales. It is an incredibly phenomenal worldwide asset for map makers for Cultural, physical, and base map information first stop for excellent GIS map making.

OSM offers an enormous amount of high-resolution and detailed vector information. It is crowd-sourced from map makers and different GIS map creators.

The drawback of the public support design is that nothing is verified in advance. Checking information precision is troublesome, and some informational collections are deficient.

USGS EarthExplorer is effectively one of the most comprehensive hotspots for remote sensing data from satellites or other high-flying airplanes.

OpenTopography is one of the few online resources where one can download full LiDAR datasets. It isn’t worldwide comprehensive, with around 90% of the assets focusing on the United States, Canada, Australia, Brazil, Haiti, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. In the realm of GIS, LiDAR information is a scant and valuable asset. So regardless of the impediments, these informational indexes can be priceless for individuals whose activities center around those nations.

Nasa Earth Observations (NEO) is another asset that centers around Remote sensing information. This is a remarkable resource because it is atmosphere and climate-focused, making environment, land, seas, energy, and human life information more reachable.

Furthermore, these assets are refreshed reliably (guaranteeing more remarkable precision) and are accessible in a large number of configurations: JPEG, PNG,

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